🔥 Quick look around VMP 3.x - Part 3 : Virtualization


This article explain how VMProtect works, not how to crack a VMP protected software. I’m not talking about any kind of Licensing System provided by VMP, or a developped one using VMP. I DON’T SUPPORT PIRACY in any way. This protection (cracked / leaked version of it) is used to protect malwares, and my objective with this article is to improve the commun knowledge of it to help and simplify the analysis of this type of malware. I posted this article ONLY for EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES. This could be maliciously used and it’s why I DO NOT GUARANTEE AND IS RESPONSIBLE, in no case, of such use. You are responsible of your actions towards this article.

I - Intro

Hello, finally, like I said a while ago here is the Part 3 of my work around VMP. A step in the madness of virtualization. I’m not going to talk about specific stuff like Licensing System of VMP, Locked by key virtualized routines and other things that involve comercial stuff. My motivation is the challenge of understanding something that big, and help malware reversers to understand malicious content protected by VMP. My analysis in only based on Windows x86 virtualization, I will analyse VMP routines, and give an example while explaining how hard it is to understand.

Note : I’m not perfect regarding my reverse, I could be wrong in some part

II - Demo vs Paid

Demo version is not even close to the difficulty of paid version. Demo version is a “normal” vm in term of conception, a dispatcher with a switch like offset jump to handles. You can trace easily the vm code, there are no key chain to jump to the next opcode, the opcode arguments are not even ciphered. And there are way less mutations in handles. Files produced by the demo version can’t even be considered as VMP POC as there are less protected than Paid version. Also, keychains where not used for control flow execution in versions 2.x (handle offset was ciphered “statically”), VMP 2.x is basically today’s VMP 3.x demo with rolling key on the operands. In order to do a real research about VMP x86, I based my work on the paid version, thanks to one of my friend that shared a license 🧡

III - First look

To start somewhere, I will show you what is a VMP routine. The first thing we can notice when we virtualize a function is that a jump to .vmp0 section is made.

And the rest of the original function has been replaced by actual VMP code (in this case it’s an actual handle part)

Then, the code in VMP section is starting by a push uint32 and a call function. Those are the main indicators of a VMP routine. Sometimes it’s a “never returning call” and the data behind it is random, sometimes it’s a custom handle to go to a VENTER.

The pushed value (in this case 0xfe628c90) is the encrypted opcode start (the start VIP, EP), and the called function is a VENTER instruction that will decrypt this value (it’s a small spoil, all is explained below). Let’s pretend that we don’t know it’s an instruction (VENTER). If we continue in the called function, we end up in list of instructions that are obviously mutated (see: Part 2 : Code Mutation), and this code ends on a jump to an address in a register.

If we continue a bit, we start to quickly figure out a pattern. We notice that those kind of “blocks” (code followed by a jump to a register) are executed right after each other. In order to understand, I will split each one of those “blocks” and list them. Here is a preview of the execution flow (each line is the start of a block)

NOTE : I removed parts of junkcode to make things easier

0x7ae901:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]
0x7ae905:	lea	esi, [esi + 4]
0x7ae914:	movzx	eax, byte ptr [ebp]
0x83e3c2:	lea	ebp, [ebp + 1]
0x7d7bf8:	mov	dword ptr [esp + eax], ecx
0x8429bf:	add	edi, ecx
0x6d015e:	jmp	edi
0x755912:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]
0x75591a:	lea	esi, [esi + 4]
0x755925:	movzx	eax, byte ptr [ebp]
0x6c94c6:	mov	dword ptr [esp + eax], ecx
0x6c94d7:	lea	ebp, [ebp + 4]
0x79cdbd:	add	edi, ecx
0x79cdbf:	push	edi
0x79cdc0:	ret	
0x7b821a:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]
0x7b8222:	lea	esi, [esi + 4]
0x7b822b:	movzx	eax, byte ptr [ebp]
0x7b695c:	mov	dword ptr [esp + eax], ecx
0x7b6966:	lea	ebp, [ebp + 4]
0x7637cb:	add	edi, ecx
0x78cc6a:	jmp	edi

It’s definitly looking like instructions !

IV - Let’s reverse

So, let’s understand one of those blocks as an example. As you may guess, those blocks are in fact VM instructions (handles).

Here is an example of a raw handle (with code mutation) :

0x45bf82:	lea	esi, [esi - 1]
0x45bf88:	shl	dl, cl
0x45bf8a:	shr	dh, cl
0x45bf8c:	movzx	eax, byte ptr [esi]
0x45bf8f:	inc	ecx
0x45bf90:	shrd	ecx, ebx, 0x3f
0x45bf94:	xor	al, bl
0x45bf96:	rcl	cx, cl
0x45bf99:	ror	al, 1
0x45bf9b:	jmp	0x40a4fa
0x40a4fa:	dec	al
0x40a4fc:	xchg	dh, dh
0x40a4fe:	cmovs	dx, ax
0x40a502:	bswap	dx
0x40a505:	not	al
0x40a507:	dec	al
0x40a509:	cmp	dl, ch
0x40a50b:	bsr	cx, si
0x40a50f:	btc	cx, 0x1f
0x40a514:	xor	bl, al
0x40a516:	cmovp	dx, bp
0x40a51a:	movzx	dx, byte ptr [esp + eax]
0x40a51f:	sub	ebp, 2
0x40a525:	movsx	cx, ch
0x40a529:	mov	word ptr [ebp], dx
0x40a52e:	sar	cl, 0xf6
0x40a531:	lea	esi, [esi - 4]
0x40a537:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]
0x40a539:	test	si, 0x701e
0x40a53e:	xor	ecx, ebx
0x40a540:	jmp	0x438108
0x438108:	sub	ecx, 0x5eac74dd
0x43810e:	cmc	
0x43810f:	not	ecx
0x438111:	jmp	0x41743d
0x41743d:	bswap	ecx
0x41743f:	rol	ecx, 1
0x417441:	jmp	0x4513d8
0x4513d8:	neg	ecx
0x4513da:	stc	
0x4513db:	xor	ebx, ecx
0x4513dd:	cmp	bx, ax
0x4513e0:	add	edi, ecx
0x4513e2:	jmp	0x45af97
0x45af97:	jmp	0x4752b4
0x4752b4:	lea	ecx, [esp + 0x60]
0x4752b8:	test	sp, sp
0x4752bb:	cmp	ebp, ecx
0x4752bd:	jmp	0x48a866
0x48a866:	ja	0x461417
0x461417:	push	edi
0x461418:	ret	

As you can see the code mutation is pretty heavy, so let’s remove it. Here is the same version, without junkcode :

0x45bf82:	lea	esi, [esi - 1]
0x45bf8c:	movzx	eax, byte ptr [esi]
0x45bf94:	xor	al, bl
0x45bf99:	ror	al, 1
0x40a4fa:	dec	al
0x40a505:	not	al
0x40a507:	dec	al
0x40a514:	xor	bl, al
0x40a51a:	movzx	dx, byte ptr [esp + eax]
0x40a51f:	sub	ebp, 2
0x40a529:	mov	word ptr [ebp], dx
0x40a531:	lea	esi, [esi - 4]
0x40a537:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]
0x40a53e:	xor	ecx, ebx
0x438108:	sub	ecx, 0x5eac74dd
0x43810e:	cmc	
0x43810f:	not	ecx
0x41743d:	bswap	ecx
0x41743f:	rol	ecx, 1
0x4513d8:	neg	ecx
0x4513da:	stc	
0x4513db:	xor	ebx, ecx
0x4513e0:	add	edi, ecx
0x4752b4:	lea	ecx, [esp + 0x60]
0x461417:	push	edi
0x461418:	ret	

Ok, now let’s figure out what it does :

0x45bf82:	VUNKNOWN: (VIP = esi, VSP = ebp)

# update VIP to point on operand (current VIP is pointing on opcode offset)
0x45bf82:	lea	esi, [esi - 1]

# get the ciphered operand (1 byte)
0x45bf8c:	movzx	eax, byte ptr [esi]

# mutated operand decryption (keychain)
# NOTE : ebx contain the rolling key
0x45bf94:	xor	al, bl
0x45bf99:	ror	al, 1
0x40a4fa:	dec	al
0x40a505:	not	al
0x40a507:	dec	al
0x40a514:	xor	bl, al

# push a value into vm stack from vm context
# eax = 8; VCTX[8] -> [VSP-2] = VPUSH R8
0x40a51a:	movzx	dx, byte ptr [esp + eax]
0x40a51f:	sub	ebp, 2
0x40a529:	mov	word ptr [ebp], dx

# update VIP to the next ciphered opcode offset
0x40a531:	lea	esi, [esi - 4]

# get next ciphered opcode offset
0x40a537:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]

# mutated next handle offset decryption routine (keychain)
# NOTE : ebx contain the rolling key
0x40a53e:	xor	ecx, ebx
0x438108:	sub	ecx, 0x5eac74dd
0x43810e:	cmc	
0x43810f:	not	ecx
0x41743d:	bswap	ecx
0x41743f:	rol	ecx, 1
0x4513d8:	neg	ecx
0x4513da:	stc	
0x4513db:	xor	ebx, ecx

# update absolute handle position with the next handle offset
0x4513e0:	add	edi, ecx

# reset the next rolling key operand
0x4752b4:	lea	ecx, [esp + 0x60]

# jump to the next handle
0x461417:	push	edi
0x461418:	ret	

So, this handle is a VPUSH16 [VCTX + *] instruction !

V - VM Structure

Now that we have an idea of what is an handle, here is the VM structure.

V.1 - Architecture

The VM works as follow :

It uses a Virtual Instruction Pointer VIP stored in a x86 register, and a Virtual Stack Pointer VSP also stored in a x86 register. In each VMP routines, those are stored in random registers unlike VMP 2.X, and could be swapped if the routine perform a jump (see parts below).

The VM comes with a context VCTX, in it, there are 18 registers R0 -> R17, and a stack. This context also contain a rolling key operand in esp + 0x60, and the rolling key itself is stored in a random x86 register. In general, an handle offset (handle base address + instruction offset) is stored in a register.

NOTE : if you enable VMProtect’s packer, .vmp1 contain VMP handles and mutated code. Otherwise, all is in .vmp0.

V.2 - Instructions

The instruction set is about ~20 instructions, ~40 if you take in account the variable size (it could be some remaining instructions I haven’t reversed), an instruction is made of two parts, an encrypted handle offset, and its encrypted arguments (operands) (each handle is heavilly mutated)

I will not explain intructions in details, but here are some you can find :


A VMP routine starts by a VENTER intruction, and ends by a VEXIT instruction. When VMP can’t handle the original x86 instruction, it is saved as it is in the VM routine, but it uses VMP’s registers (see: V.4 - Control flow).

V.3 - Rolling key

V.3.1 - Instruction flow

VMP changed a lot since 2.x regarding this, before, the opcode was grabbed using a simple index in an array, with a jmp right after to go to the handle in function of the opcode in the array. Note that this is still the current behavior of VMP Demo version. Currently, the handle table is still there, but the flow is not “linear” anymore (an index through an array).

Let’s take an example, the current instruction decrypts the next opcode offset (next instruction) with an unique “rolling” key and a unique mutated decryption routine. Rolling means a keychain, like for example the first handle decipher the first opcode with its unique key in edi. During the decryption routine, the key in edi has been mutated uniquely in function of the decryption routine, to allows the next handle to be able to decipher the next opcode.

This means first that you can’t decrypt the opcode flow staticaly without using symbolic execution (like NoVmp with VTIL), and you are also obligated to cross all handles in order to get the opcode. But this also means that you can’t modify the execution flow (or it’s very hard), because if you want to tweak the execution of an instruction, you have make its decryption key feet to the all keychain (static modification).

This is an example of VIP update at the end of an handle :

# VIP += 4
lea	ebp, [ebp + 4]
# ebx = last key of the keychain
xor	edx, ebx
# mutated decryption routine
inc	edx
add	edx, 0x49951f73
add	edx, 0x794f4349
neg	edx
inc	edx
# cipher the current decryption key for the next
# handle decryption routine
xor	ebx, edx
# current handle + offset
add	esi, edx
# jump to next handle
push	esi

In this case, the rolling key operand is the handle offset of the previous handle (stored temporary in edx in this example), and the rolling key is stored in ebx.

NOTE : VMP 3.x x64 in the other hand still keep the handle table in a register, and the decrypted handle offset is just added to it, unlike here where the handle offset is increased

V.3.2 - Operands

Like in VMP 2.x, the rolling key is also applied to intruction operand decryption. Unlike V.3.1 - Instruction flow decryption routine, the rolling key operand is the encrypted instruction argument, but the rolling key is the same as V.3.1 - Instruction flow.

# esi = VIP
# ecx = instruction argument
mov	ecx, dword ptr [esi]
# update VIP 
lea	esi, [esi + 4]
# decryption routine with instruction argument as rolling key operand
# ebx = rolling key
xor	ecx, ebx
dec	ecx
neg	ecx
xor	ecx, 0x611a1565
cmp	ebp, edx
xor	ebx, ecx

V.4 - Control flow

So, like mentined above, the instruction flow is made by rolling key decryption (see: V.3.1 - Instruction flow) and a VMP routine start by a VENTER. But, virtualization can’t handle each x86 instructions like I said in an older post, so VMP keep those instructions in the code. At some point during the routine execution, the VM will do a VEXIT to return in x86 context and execute the unsupported instruction. And right after, a VENTER is executed to return in VM context.

Here are some unsupported instructions : MOVDQ2Q, STOS*, FSINCOS, WBINVD, WRMSR, UD2 (of course), MOVNTPD, CPUID ...

This skip is also applied to some loops (see the integrity check of VMP as a good example).

API call are also done outside of VMP. Before the call, a custom VEXIT will pop the arguments in the real x86 context. And right after, the real call is performed using its calling convention.

In rare cases, I saw a VMP instruction that contain custom code, like a loop or a special instruction, without a VEXIT. But it’s not presistant enough so I can talk about it more.

V.5 - About the junkcode

Now that we know the behaviour of VMP, we can consider this to remove more junkcode. So, VMP doesn’t do any cmp / test on VIP and VSP registers as comparisons are melted using MBA (see below). Some instructions are useless, like mov, cmp and xchg on the same register, and some register size are not used in some circumstances (a mov al, dl is not related to a handle that move 32 bits values). If you want more informations about the code mutation engine of VMP, and its junkcode, check my last article on it (Part 2 : Code Mutation).

VI - Automation

So, how to handle this ? You have two main options, doing devirtualization, or tracing the executed VMP opcode. Tracing is simple, as you only have to monitor or emulate each executed instruction, and do pattern matching to see what VMP instructions are executed. Devirtualization in the other hand could give you the ability to retrive an x86 code that is close to the original code. But it’s way more complicated as you have to understand and reconstruct the control flow in anycase possible, and using lifting tools to simplify the obfuscated code. Those two options could be done staticaly or dynamicly, this first required symbolic execution to bypass the rolling decryption routines, and the second one need an complet emulation framework to handle each aspect of the VM. I shortly detailed the devirtualization approach in IX - Devirtualization.

As I don’t want to spend too much time on this, I made a short tracer based on qiling (using unicorn emulation). This “debugger” will emulate routines instructions, and using pattern matching, will understand which VMP instruction is executed.

VII - An example

Now, as we can read the instructions executed by VMP, we can try to recover the original x86 code. Here are two examples of virtualized routines, the first is just a simple math operation around a variable, and the second is an if statement.

NOTE : of course, my tracer skipped the decryption routines stuff, all immediates are already decrypted

VII.1 - Simple routine

In order to understand how a virtualized routine look like, here is an example of a simple code.

Here is the original code :

int var_0 = 0x1337;

var_0 ^= 0x50;
var_0 *= 2;
var_0 -= 5;
var_0 += 0x80;

return var_0;

Here is the original assembly code :

NOTE : as you can see, this code is not optimized due to the constant assignation. It’s intended to see how VMP stores this variables.

mov     dword [ebp-0x4], 0x1337
mov     eax, dword [ebp-0x4]
xor     eax, 0x50               {0x1367}
mov     dword [ebp-0x4], eax    {0x1367}
mov     eax, dword [ebp-0x4]
shl     eax, 0x1                {0x26ce}
mov     dword [ebp-0x4], eax    {0x26ce}
mov     eax, dword [ebp-0x4]
sub     eax, 0x5                {0x26c9}
mov     dword [ebp-0x4], eax    {0x26c9}
mov     eax, dword [ebp-0x4]
add     eax, 0x80               {0x2749}
mov     dword [ebp-0x4], eax    {0x2749}
mov     eax, dword [ebp-0x4]    {0x2749}
jmp     0x401043
401043: # NOTE : this will not be virtualized

After virtualization, the code is about 126 VMP instructions.

The first thing executed in the VM is storing the x86 context in VMP registers (VENTER pushed each registers on CPU stack)

0x44378a:       VENTER          (VIP = ebp, VSP = esi)
0x44faee:       VPOPR32     R7  (0x0    ->      R7)
0x4771b8:       VPOPR32     R9  (0x0    ->      R9)
0x41e851:       VPOPR32     R5  (0xffffcfac     ->      R5)
0x4307c5:       VPOPR32     R2  (0x503cee8      ->      R2)
0x42861f:       VPOPR32     R12 (0x0    ->      R12)
0x42ac89:       VPOPR32     R4  (0x44   ->      R4)
0x43de1a:       VPOPR32     R15 (0x0    ->      R15)
0x481993:       VPOPR32     R11 (0x503cf18      ->      R11)
0x46ecaf:       VPOPR32     R0  (0xffffe000     ->      R0)
0x434480:       VPOPR32     R6  (0x41c63d       ->      R6)
0x4045f1:       VPOPR32     R3  (0xc046bf9b     ->      R3)

This code is : int var_0 = 0x1337;

# push current stack pointer
0x462495:       VPUSHVSP

# setup the variable 'var_0' at 0xffffcfa8
# (0x4 + 0xffffcfa4) : 0xffffcfa8 -> VSP
0x488c75:       VPUSHI32    0x4               (VSP -= 4)
0x46769d:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0x4 + 0xffffcfa4 = 0xffffcfa8)
0x44faee:       VPOPR32     R10               (0x80   ->      R10)

# return to the old stack pointer
0x42cbcb:       VPOPVSP

# push two values, those two combined give the variable offset 0xffffcfa8
# 0xfffffffc is an offset to recover 'var_0' after the 'VPOPVSP'
# like after a call, but the 'VPUSHVSP' seems usless in this case
# so it's maybe an obfuscated way get the stack offset of a variable
0x453bd6:       VPUSH32     [0x7fffff99]      (0xffffcfac     ->      [VSP])
0x43ad59:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)

# get the '0x1337' value
0x4472f7:       VPUSHI32    0x1337            (VSP -= 4)

# 'var_0' = 0xffffcfa8 = (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac)
# 'var_0' -> [VSP]
0x408a8b:       VPUSH32     R0                (0xffffcfac     ->      [VSP])
0x437891:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x45343d:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)

# NOTE : after each VADDU32, a VPOPR32 will pop an additional value pushed by VADDU32
#        I still don't know if this VPOPR32 means something
0x4771b8:       VPOPR32     R10               (0x91   ->      R10)

# 'var_0' initialized with '0x1337'
0x443f3d:       VMOV32      [0xffffcfa8], [VSP+0x4] (0x1337 -> [0xffffcfa8])

This code is : var_0 ^= 0x50;

This one is interesting because it uses MBA (see: Defeating MBA-based Obfuscation)

Original : 0x1337 ^ 0x50                                         = 0x1367
VMP      : ~(~(0x1337) & ~(0x50)) & ~(~(~(0x1337)) & ~(~(0x50))) = 0x1367

Here is the code :

# keep 'var_0' on stack top
0x46fd4b:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x41e851:       VPOPR32     R3                (0x91   ->      R3)
0x44e6d5:       VFETCH32    [VSP]             ([0xffffcfa8] = 0x1337 -> [VSP])

# 0x1337 -> R8
0x4307c5:       VPOPR32     R8                (0x1337 ->      R8)

# ~(0x50) -> [VSP]
0x453285:       VPUSHI32    0xffffffaf        (VSP -= 4)

# push the value twice
0x46850b:       VPUSH32     [0xffff850b]      (0x1337 ->      [VSP])
0x4124e2:       VPUSH32     [0x20000000]      (0x1337 ->      [VSP])

# ~(0x1337) -> [VSP]
0x42af58:       VNORU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xffffecc8 | 0xffffecc8 = 0xffffecc8 -> [VSP])
0x42861f:       VPOPR32     R14               (0x80   ->      R14)

# ~(~(0x1337)) & ~(~(0x50)) = 0x10 -> [VSP]
0x45567d:       VNANDU32    [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0x1337 & 0x50 = 0x10 -> [VSP])
0x42ac89:       VPOPR32     R10               (0x0    ->      R10)

# 0x50 -> [VSP]
0x4545a2:       VPUSHI32    0x50              (VSP -= 4)

# 0x1337 -> [VSP]
0x466ec1:       VPUSH32     R8                (0x1337 ->      [VSP])

# ~(0x1337) & ~(0x50) = 0xffffec88 -> [VSP]
0x48bfe1:       VNANDU32    [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xffffecc8 & 0xffffffaf = 0xffffec88 -> [VSP])
0x43de1a:       VPOPR32     R6                (0x84   ->      R6)

# ~(0xffffec88) & ~(0x10) = 0x1367 -> [VSP]
0x420812:       VNANDU32    [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0x1377 & 0xffffffef = 0x1367 -> [VSP])
0x481993:       VPOPR32     R1                (0x0    ->      R1)

# result : ~(~(0x1337) & ~(0x50)) & ~(~(~(0x1337)) & ~(~(0x50))) = 0x1367 -> [VSP]
# 0x1367 -> R10 
0x46ecaf:       VPOPR32     R10               (0x1367 ->      R10)
0x432c3c:       VPUSH32     [0x2c3c]          (0x1367 ->      [VSP])

# 'var_0' -> [VSP]
0x47231a:       VPUSH32     [0x1439]          (0xffffcfac     ->      [VSP])
0x472a7c:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x451c9f:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x434480:       VPOPR32     R14               (0x91   ->      R14)

# 0x1367 -> 'var_0'
0x428820:       VMOV32      [0xffffcfa8], [VSP+0x4]  (0x1367 -> [0xffffcfa8])

This code is : var_0 *= 2;

# push 'var_0' on VMP stack
0x46835a:       VPUSH32     R0                (0xffffcfac -> [VSP])
0x4862b9:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x424828:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x4045f1:       VPOPR32     R12               (0x91 -> R12)
0x421e74:       VFETCH32    [VSP]             ([0xffffcfa8] = 0x1367 -> [VSP])

# 0x1367 -> R12
0x44faee:       VPOPR32     R12               (0x1367 -> R12)

# push 0x1367 and 1
0x4382b0:       VPUSHI8     0x1               (VSP -= 2)
0x406aef:       VPUSH32     R12               (0x1367 -> [VSP])

# 0x1367 << 0x1 = 0x1367 * 2 = 0x26ce -> [VSP]
# 0x26ce -> R10
0x40d36f:       VSHLU8      [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0x1367 << 0x1 = 0x26ce -> [VSP])
0x4771b8:       VPOPR32     R1                (0x0 -> R1)
0x41e851:       VPOPR32     R10               (0x26ce -> R10)

# I don't know x)
0x461c9d:       VPUSH32     [0xffff002b]      (0xffffcfac -> [VSP])
0x45858d:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x4469c9:       VPUSH32     [0x61740000]      (0x26ce -> [VSP])

# 'var_0' -> [VSP]
0x453bd6:       VPUSH32     [0x7fffff99]      (0xffffcfac -> [VSP])
0x45c02b:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x4770ad:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x4307c5:       VPOPR32     R12               (0x91 -> R12)

# '0x26ce' -> 'var_0'
0x40d6da:       VMOV32      [0xffffcfa8], [VSP+0x4] (0x26ce -> [0xffffcfa8])

This code is : var_0 -= 5;

Original : 0x26ce - 5       = 0x26c9
VMP      : ~(~(0x26ce) + 5) = 0x26c9

Here is the code :

# push 'var_0' on VMP stack
0x4079da:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4] (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x42861f:       VPOPR32     R3               (0x91 -> R3)
0x43d21b:       VFETCH32    [VSP]            ([0xffffcfa8] = 0x26ce -> [VSP])

# 0x26ce -> R14
0x42ac89:       VPOPR32     R14              (0x26ce -> R14)

# push 5
0x45b846:       VPUSHI32    0x5              (VSP -= 4)

# push 0x26ce twice
0x408a8b:       VPUSH32     R0               (0x26ce -> [VSP])
0x46850b:       VPUSH32     [0xffff850b]     (0x26ce -> [VSP])

# ~(0x26ce) -> [VSP]
0x40ac1f:       VNORU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4] (0xffffd931 | 0xffffd931 = 0xffffd931 -> [VSP])
0x43de1a:       VPOPR32     R8               (0x80 -> R8)

# ~(0x26ce) + 5 = 0xffffd936 -> [VSP]
0x431c78:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4] (0xffffd931 + 0x5 = 0xffffd936)
0x481993:       VPOPR32     R12              (0x84 -> R12)

# get stack top
0x470c06:       VPUSHVSP
0x47d211:       VFETCH32    [VSP]            ([0xffffcfa4] -> [VSP])

# ~(~(0x26ce) + 5) -> R10
0x45794d:       VNORU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4] (0x26c9 | 0x26c9 = 0x26c9 -> [VSP])
0x46ecaf:       VPOPR32     R1               (0x4 -> R1)
0x434480:       VPOPR32     R10              (0x26c9 -> R10)

# maybe to be use later
0x4124e2:       VPUSH32     [0x14000000]     (0xffffcfac -> [VSP])
0x488c75:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc       (VSP -= 4)

# push 0x26c9 to be stored at 0x46af11
0x466ec1:       VPUSH32     R10              (0x26c9 -> [VSP])

# 'var_0' -> [VSP]
0x432c3c:       VPUSH32     [0x2c3c]         (0xffffcfac -> [VSP])
0x43ad59:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc       (VSP -= 4)
0x453e4c:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4] (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x4045f1:       VPOPR32     R6               (0x91 -> R6)

# save '0x26c9' in 'var_0'
0x46af11:       VMOV32      [0xffffcfa8], [VSP+0x4] (0x26c9 -> [0xffffcfa8])

This code is : var_0 += 0x80;

# push 'var_0' on VMP stack
# 0x26c9 -> R14
0x47af9a:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x44faee:       VPOPR32     R6                (0x91   ->      R6)
0x479e60:       VFETCH32    [VSP]             ([0xffffcfa8] = 0x26c9 -> [VSP])
0x4771b8:       VPOPR32     R14               (0x26c9 ->      R14)

# 0x26c9 + 0x80 = 0x2749 -> [VSP]
# 0x2749 -> R6
0x4472f7:       VPUSHI32    0x80              (VSP -= 4)
0x47231a:       VPUSH32     [0x145d]          (0x26c9 ->      [VSP])
0x43e04a:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0x26c9 + 0x80 = 0x2749)
0x41e851:       VPOPR32     R8                (0x0    ->      R8)
0x4307c5:       VPOPR32     R6                (0x2749 ->      R6)

# 'var_0' -> [VSP]
0x46835a:       VPUSH32     R0                (0xffffcfac     ->      [VSP])
0x437891:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x46769d:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)

# push result to save it latter at 0x45cd94
0x406aef:       VPUSH32     R6                (0x2749 ->      [VSP])

# 'var_0' -> [VSP]
0x461c9d:       VPUSH32     [0xffff002b]      (0xffffcfac     ->      [VSP])
0x453285:       VPUSHI32    0xfffffffc        (VSP -= 4)
0x45343d:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]  (0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x42861f:       VPOPR32     R14               (0x91   ->      R14)

# '0x2749' -> 'var_0'
0x45cd94:       VMOV32      [0xffffcfa8], [VSP+0x4]  (0x2749 -> [0xffffcfa8])
0x42ac89:       VPOPR32     R12               (0x91   ->      R12)

# 'var_0' -> R10
0x4112dd:       VFETCH32    [VSP]             ([0xffffcfa8] = 0x2749 -> [VSP])
0x43de1a:       VPOPR32     R10               (0x2749 ->      R10)

At the end, the virtualized routine return address is pushed (0x401043, the address of leave; retn). The modified CPU context is restored by pushing each value on VMP stack, and VEXIT will set each CPU registers in function of VMP stack.

# push return address
# 0x401043 -> [VSP]
0x4545a2:       VPUSHI32    0x401043            (VSP -= 4)

# add offset to return address (used in loops) 
# 0x0 + 0x401043 -> [VSP]
0x4469c9:       VPUSH32     [0x61740000]        (0x0    ->      [VSP])
0x46fd4b:       VADDU32     [VSP], [VSP+0x4]    (0x0 + 0x401043 = 0x401043)
0x481993:       VPOPR32     R6                  (0x0    ->      R6)

# push VMP context
0x453bd6:       VPUSH32     [0x7fff0000]        (0xffffe000     ->      [VSP])
0x408a8b:       VPUSH32     R0                  (0x503cf18      ->      [VSP])
0x46850b:       VPUSH32     [0xffff850b]        (0x0    ->      [VSP])
0x4124e2:       VPUSH32     [0x20000000]        (0x0    ->      [VSP])
0x466ec1:       VPUSH32     R10                 (0x2749 ->      [VSP])
0x432c3c:       VPUSH32     [0x2c3c]            (0x503cee8      ->      [VSP])
0x47231a:       VPUSH32     [0x1439]            (0xffffcfac     ->      [VSP])
0x46835a:       VPUSH32     R0                  (0x0    ->      [VSP])

# save the VMP context to x86 registers
0x433bfa:       VEXIT

Still here ? As you can see, we can recover the code, but it’s not that easy :)

Here is a pseudo code :

int var_0 = 0x1337;

var_0 = ~(~(var_0) & ~(0x50)) & ~(~(~(var_0)) & ~(~(0x50)));
var_0 *= 2;
var_0 = ~(~(var_0) + 5);
var_0 += 0x80;

return var_0;

VII.2 - Virtualized control flow

Now how VMP deal with the control flow, here a simple if state :

int var_0 = 999;

if (var_0 == 999) {
    var_0 = 666;
else {
    var_0 = 777;

Its assembly code :

mov     dword [ebp-0x4 {var_0}], 0x3e7
cmp     dword [ebp-0x4 {var_0}], 0x3e7
jne     0x401025  {0x0}
mov     dword [ebp-0x4 {var_0}], 0x29a
jmp     0x40102c
mov     dword [ebp-0x4 {var_0}], 0x309
mov     eax, 0x539
jmp     0x401039
leave    {__saved_ebp}
retn     {__return_addr}

Now the virtualized code :

Note : the MBA is too heavy in this part, so I summerized

# MBA to get 0x3e7 (999) .....

# the wanted value is stored in an obfuscated value 
# value_1 = [0xffffcfa0] = 0xfffffc18 + 0x3e7 = 0xffffffff
0x45e8b9:	VADDU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(0xfffffc18 + 0x3e7 = 0xffffffff)
0x464561:	VPOPR32	R13	(0x84	->	R13)

# .....
# a lot of MBA to obscure the comparison
# .....

# push the next jump offset (var_0 = 666;)
0x45d42b:	VPUSHI32	0x4522ae	(VSP -= 4)

# MBA to produce the obscured compared value
# value_2 = (~0x0 | ~(~(~(~0x0 & ~0x0) | ~0x4522ae) & ~(var_0_obscured))) = 0xffffffff
0x456732:	VPUSH32	R13	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x442df0:	VPUSH32	R13	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x42ad4c:	VNANDU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(~0x0 & ~0x0 = 0xffffffff & 0xffffffff = 0xffffffff -> [VSP])
0x4346f1:	VPOPR32	R7	(0x84	->	R7)
0x4701ca:	VNORU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(~0xffffffff | ~0x4522ae = 0x0 | 0xffbadd51 = 0xffbadd51 -> [VSP])
0x40c7e3:	VPOPR32	R7	(0x80	->	R7)
0x47fbe5:	VPUSHVSP	
# var_0_obscured = [0xffffcfa4]
0x46cda0:	VFETCH32	[VSP]	([0xffffcfa4] = 0xffbadd51 -> [VSP])
0x45a3d0:	VNANDU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(~0xffbadd51 & ~0xffbadd51 = 0x4522ae & 0x4522ae = 0x4522ae -> [VSP])
0x474a78:	VPOPR32	R2	(0x0	->	R2)
0x416aff:	VPUSHI32	0x45221c	(VSP -= 4)
0x47c4dc:	VPUSH32	R13	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x45e44b:	VNORU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(~0x0 | ~0x45221c = 0xffffffff | 0xffbadde3 = 0xffffffff -> [VSP])
0x450d42:	VPOPR32	R1	(0x84	->	R1)
0x430a33:	VPUSHVSP		

# push the obscured wanted value (value_1)
0x48859c:	VFETCH32	[VSP]	([0xffffcfa0] = 0xffffffff -> [VSP])

# NAND the obscured wanted value and the MBA obfuscated compared value
# ~value_1 & ~value_2 = 0x0 & 0x0 = 0x0 = true
# if value_2 is not the intended one, this NAND will return a value great then 0
0x41586e:	VNANDU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(~0xffffffff & ~0xffffffff = 0x0 & 0x0 = 0x0 -> [VSP])
0x4459ea:	VPOPR32	R14	(0x44	->	R14)

# add the "conditional" offset to the jump offset
# add (~value_1 & ~value_2) to jump offset : 0x0 + 0x4522ae
0x43166b:	VADDU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(0x0 + 0x4522ae = 0x4522ae)
0x4187d4:	VPOPR32	R1	(0x0	->	R1)

# set R2 to next jump offset : 0x4522ae
0x409350:	VPOPR32	R2	(0x4522ae	->	R2)

Right after, the swapping jump is done :

# push each registers to swap after jump
0x41d886:	VPUSH32	R15	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x46cde8:	VPUSH32	R11	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x473217:	VPUSH32	R9	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x4300a5:	VPUSH32	R3	(0x50384a8	->	[VSP])
0x40fb72:	VPUSH32	R10	(0xffffcfac	->	[VSP])
0x41470e:	VPUSH32	R11	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x482d01:	VPUSH32	R6	(0x44	->	[VSP])
0x456732:	VPUSH32	R0	(0x50384d4	->	[VSP])
0x442df0:	VPUSH32	R4	(0xffffe000	->	[VSP])
0x47c4dc:	VPUSH32	R5	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x4778dd:	VPUSH32	R15	(0x0	->	[VSP])

# push jump target
0x41d886:	VPUSH32	R2	(0x4522ae	->	[VSP])

# jump to [VSP], this jump variant only swap VIP (esi -> esi) 
# NOTE : in this case it's a useless swap
0x43ab3a:	VJUMP_1	[VSP]	(0x4522ae + 0x0) (VIP = esi -> esi)

# pop each registers to swap them
0x469ef9:	VPOPR32	R3	(0x0	->	R3)
0x4346f1:	VPOPR32	R8	(0x0	->	R8)
0x40c7e3:	VPOPR32	R2	(0xffffe000	->	R2)
0x474a78:	VPOPR32	R14	(0x50384d4	->	R14)
0x450d42:	VPOPR32	R15	(0x44	->	R15)
0x4459ea:	VPOPR32	R4	(0x0	->	R4)
0x4187d4:	VPOPR32	R1	(0xffffcfac	->	R1)
0x409856:	VPOPR32	R6	(0x50384a8	->	R6)
0x409350:	VPOPR32	R13	(0x0	->	R13)
0x464561:	VPOPR32	R11	(0x0	->	R11)
0x480d95:	VPOPR32	R10	(0x0	->	R10)

And this is the code executed after the jump :

# another junk jump .....

# this is the next opcode executed
# mov dword [ebp-0x4 {var_0}], 0x29a

# push 0x29a (666)
0x47b585:	VPUSHI32	0x29a	(VSP -= 4)

# calc var_0 stack offset
0x423839:	VPUSH32	R9	(0xffffcfac	->	[VSP])
0x41ca5f:	VPUSHI32	0xfffffffc	(VSP -= 4)
0x46184e:	VADDU32	[VSP], [VSP+0x4]	(0xfffffffc + 0xffffcfac = 0xffffcfa8)
0x44538c:	VPOPR32	R11	(0x91	->	R11)

# var_0 = [0xffffcfa8] = 0x29a
0x45efdf:	VMOV32	VSP[0xffffcfa8], [VSP+0x4]	(0x29a -> VSP[0xffffcfa8])

Well again, as the jump condition is melted into MBA, it’s pretty hard to understand what’s going on without lifting.

VIII - Tricks to make things harder

VIII.1 - Outside VMP code

VIII.1.1 - Intruction variants

Some VMP instructions have the same goal, but are different in terms of code (not in terms of code mutation). Here the example of VJUMP, those two are the same, but there behavior are differents, one is swapping VIP into VSP, the other is placing VSP in edi. In fact, there are 4 jumps like that in VMP, and they are a variant of each other.

0x82520d:       VJUMP_2: (VIP = ebp, VSP = edi)
0x82520d:       mov     edx, dword ptr [edi]
0x825212:       add     edi, 4
0x82521f:       xchg    edx, edi                    # swap VIP and VSP using "xchg"
0x899aba:       mov     ebp, edx
0x7ee22f:       mov     ebx, edi
0x7ee234:       mov     edx, 0
0x7ee23f:       sub     ebx, edx

0x77a6a8:       VJUMP_1: (VIP = ebp, VSP = esi)
0x77a6a8:	mov	eax, dword ptr [esi]
0x77a6aa:	add	esi, 4
0x77a6b3:	mov	ebp, eax
0x77a6b7:	mov	edi, esi                    # change VSP from esi to edi
0x89a168:	mov	ebx, ebp
0x89a16a:	mov	ecx, 0
0x89a16f:	sub	ebx, ecx

VIII.1.2 - Operand offsets variants

Here is a push immediate instruction in two variants, those two grab the imm with different offsets in opcode. Sometimes the VIP is increased negatively, and sometimes positively.

0x79b54a:	VUNKNOWN: (VIP = ebp, VSP = esi)
0x79b54a:	mov	ecx, dword ptr [ebp]       # encrypted imm offset at VIP + 0
0x79b54e:	lea	ebp, [ebp + 4]                  
0x79b559:	xor	ecx, ebx
0x871597:	xor	ebx, ecx
0x87159b:	sub	esi, 4
0x8715a9:	mov	dword ptr [esi], ecx
0x73e3d5:	VUNKNOWN: (VIP = esi, VSP = edi)
0x73e3d5:	sub	esi, 4                          
0x73e3db:	mov	eax, dword ptr [esi]       # encrypted imm offset at VIP - 4
0x73e3e0:	xor	eax, ebx
0x73e3f8:	xor	ebx, eax
0x73e400:	sub	edi, 4
0x73e406:	mov	dword ptr [edi], eax

VIII.1.3 - VIP and VSP swapping

Like shown in VIII.1.1 - Intruction variants, VMP swaps its VIP and VSP registers randomly during the execution flow.

VJUMP_3	[VSP]	(0x48677d + 0x0) (VIP = edi -> esi) (VSP = ebp -> edi)
VJUMP_3	[VSP]	(0x42b7bd + 0x0) (VIP = ebp -> ebp) (VSP = esi -> edi)
VJUMP_2	[VSP]	(0x427772 + 0x0) (VIP = esi -> ebp) (VSP = ebp -> edi)
VJUMP_2	[VSP]	(0x44ecca + 0x0) (VIP = esi -> edi) (VSP = edi -> ebp)
VJUMP_1	[VSP]	(0x47e4c3 + 0x0) (VIP = ebp -> esi)
VJUMP_1	[VSP]	(0x47a555 + 0x0) (VIP = esi -> edi)
VJUMP_1	[VSP]	(0x443595 + 0x0) (VIP = esi -> esi)

VIII.2 - Inside VMP code

VIII.2.1 - VMP registers swapping

As you saw previously, each jump is “swapping” every VMP registers, every register are pushed on the stack, and popped right after in differents registers. In order to complexifty the control flow.

0x41d886:	VPUSH32	R15	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x46cde8:	VPUSH32	R11	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x473217:	VPUSH32	R9	(0x0	->	[VSP])
0x4300a5:	VPUSH32	R3	(0x50384a8	->	[VSP])
0x40fb72:	VPUSH32	R10	(0xffffcfac	->	[VSP])
0x43ab3a:	VJUMP_1	[VSP]	(0x4522ae + 0x0) (VIP = esi -> esi)
0x469ef9:	VPOPR32	R3	(0x0	->	R3)
0x4346f1:	VPOPR32	R8	(0x0	->	R8)
0x40c7e3:	VPOPR32	R2	(0xffffe000	->	R2)
0x474a78:	VPOPR32	R14	(0x50384d4	->	R14)
0x450d42:	VPOPR32	R15	(0x44	->	R15)

VIII.2.2 - MBA

VMP pass all its value using randomized MBA, using models like (MBA_XOR_*(x,y) = (MBA_SUB_*(MBA_OR_V*(x,y), (MBA_AND_V*(x,y))))). Here are some I found during my reseach :

x ^ y = (~(~(x) & ~(y)) & ~(~(~(x)) & ~(~(y))))
x ^ y = ((~(~(x)) & ~(~(y))) + (~(~(x)) | ~(~(y)))) 
x ^ y = ((~(~(y)) | ~(~(x))) + ~(~(x)) - (~(~(x)) & ~(~(~(y))))) 
x ^ y = ((~(~(x)) | ~(~(y))) + (~(~(~(x))) | ~(~(y))) - (~(~(~(x)))))
x ^ y = ((~(~(x)) | ~(~(y))) + ~(~(y)) - (~(~(~(x))) & ~(~(y)))) 
x ^ y = (~(~(y)) + (~(~(x)) & ~(~(~(y)))) + (~(~(x)) & ~(~(y)))) 

x - y = (~(~(x) + y)) 
x - y = (~(((~(~(x)) | y) - (~(~(x)))))) 
x - y = (~((~(x) & ~(x)) + y) & ~((~(x) & ~(x)) + y))

x & y = ((~(~(x)) | y) - (~(~(~(x))) & y) - (~(~(x)) & ~y)) 
x & y = ((~(~(~(x))) | y) - (~(~(~(x))))) 

x | y = ((~(~(x)) & ~(y)) + y) 
x | y = (((~(~(x)) & ~(y)) & y) + ((~(~(x)) & ~(y)) | y)) 

x + y = ((~(~(x)) & ~(~(y))) + (~(~(x)) | ~(~(y)))) 

# NOTE : VMP seems to do addition normaly (without MBA) most of the time

VIII.2.3 - Random ‘calls’

Some times, I see ‘calls’ (VPUSHVSP, VPOPVSP) with no reason, and I can’t figure out if this is real junkcode, or a real separeted stack.

VIII.3 - Ultra mode

Let’s now take the same first example (math one), but in Ultra mode. Our code is now about 20817 instructions, and 428 VMP instructions. There are too much code to cover, so I will just say that the main different is that MBA is way heavier, and there are a lot of VJUMP (registers swapping + VSP/VIP swapping). Also, we have to consider that the original code is mutated, so it add a lot of virtualized instruction to the routine.

IX - Devirtualization

So how could we crack this ? Well it’s the next part of my article, but we can already talk a bit about the ‘Devirtualization’ approach.

IX.1 - The “less proper way” : Pattern matching

The simplest method, get the x86 execution flow in some way (statically and using symbolic execution, or dynamically with emulation) to figure out which block is which VMP instruction by pattern matching (like I did, but for every control flow case). And once this is done, you can convert it to another language like x86. But the code will be horrible due to the MBA and register swapping, so the most effective choice is to convert it in a compiler optimization language (LLVM, VTIL like in NoVMP). From here you can do code lifting, to remove junkcode, MBA, and other obfuscations, and the final code could be exported in x86. Note that MBA simplier tool have been released, and you could use them with DTA to remove MBA (see: Code deobfuscation framework to simplify Mixed Boolean-Arithmetic)

IX.2 - The efficiant way : DTA & Symbolic execution

The most complicated way… by using Dynamic Taint Analysis, the goal will be to understand how the VM deal with its registers to define what the VM does. In short, understand the code from the VM context, to define instructions that produce the same result as the virtualized code. This is not something easy as you may guess, there is an excellent paper of Jonathan Salwan, Sebastien Bardin, and Marie-Laure Potet about this task Symbolic deobfuscation : from virtualized code back to the original

X - About speed

From my analysis, virtualizing a simple xor takes about ~40 VMP instructions (the instruction is melted with obfu, it doesn’t take 50 instruction to do a simple xor operation). And considering that every handles are mutated (core + next opcode calculation), and the internal VMP opcode could be obfuscated even more in Ultra Mode. A VMP routine could lead to execute ~2000 instructions for a single xor (take this with a grain of salt, it’s my own conclusion based on what I saw).

In my example, 17 instructions were converted in 5943 instructions, and about 126 VMP instructions. And in Ultra mode, those were converted to 20817 instructions, and 428 VMP instructions. I tried to mesure the time difference, but it depends on a lot of factors like CPU type / usage, kernel / resources usage, running processes… So I will stay on the number of executed instructions.

According to throwawaycracker, D***** is about the same rate : "an x86 instruction will be translated into about between 2 to 50 VM instructions". And considering that D***** virtualization is based on VMP, I think that my analysis is close to the reality.

XI - What do we do now ?

So I made a debugger for it, based on qilling. Unfortunately, qiling doesn’t support API calls, you have to implement them (understandable). So there are only two possibilities for me, the first is to continue on the easy path (runtime) by coding or modding an x86 emulator for PE that could handle API calls (like ‘unicorn_pe’ but for x86). The second one is to code a static disassembler (like the first part of NoVmp) using symbolic execution or emulation through something like unicorn. But those two are time consuming, and currently I don’t have this time. So I will continue with my debugger that does the job well.

I don’t want to go on the ‘devirtualization path’ because it’s too time comsuming too, but translating the VMP code on the fly (runtime, if there are no loops) could be something interresting to do with some automations (put the devirtualized code in another section and jump to it…).

Debugging VMP is one thing, but cracking it (understand it) is another layer of difficulty, because of all things I mentioned above, and the fact that VMP code it self is heavily obfuscated (if you enable Ultra Mode). The code lifting is something very hard to do, and needs a lot of work to produce a consistant output. So devirtualizing VMP is something crazy hard.

XII - End word

Well, I think that we are done ! I don’t want to release my tools for obvious resons, I don’t want my tool to be involved in piracy stuff. But people already shared so much things around VMP 2.x in the past, and of course, NoVmp for VMP 3.x x64 is now available and open source, so not a big deal. Maybe if a new version comes out, like a 4.x, maybe I could release my tools. Btw, this is possibly the craziest thing I’ve ever reversed.